Along the top of the main stem and vigorous branches, "buds" may form so thickly that the last foot or more of stem is completely covered. Cannabis is predominantly dioecious ,   having imperfect flowers , with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. Plants that change from male to female flowering usually increase their potency, because of the growth of female flower bracts with their higher concentration of resin. Cannabis sativa cultivars are used for fibers due to their long stems; Sativa varieties may grow more than six metres tall. In more extreme cases, a plant may completely reverse sex.
Indica designates shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments. Female marijuana plants flower when the average daily photoperiod is less then about 12 to 13 hours. But more often, females will not form thick buds unless the light cycle is cut to a period of 12 hours duration. Abnormal flowers sometimes form on marijuana grown out of season, such as with winter or spring crops grown under natural light. Abnormal Flowers, Intersexes, Reversals Gender is set in the new plant at the time of fertilisation by its inheritance of either the X or the Y chromosome from the male staminate plant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination. Some plants will flower normally without a cutting of the photoperiod. In North America, cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown for use in rope, clothing and paper. In ancient Germanic culture , Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya. They hang down, and five stamens approximately 5 millimeters long emerge, consisting of slender anthers pollen sacs , splitting upwards from the tip and suspended on thin filaments. Differences in the appearance of male and female Cannabis become more apparent toward maturation. The cotyledons seed leaves are slightly unequal in size, narrowed to the base and rounded or blunt to the tip. This fact leads to a procedure for increasing the numbers of female flowers indoors. Considering potency, size, and normal flowering, the best time to sow for the summer crop is during the month of April. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial F1 generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce intermedite amounts of CBD and THC. However, no naturally occurring polyploids have ever been verified by observation of the chromosomes in any population of Cannabis. The calyx is covered with resin exuding glandular trichomes hairs. The exterior surface of the staminate calyx is covered with non-glandular trichomes. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. Root system side view Micrograph C. Cannabinoids , terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. Abnormal Flower Abnormal sexual expression includes a whole range of possibilities. The precise definition of pistil refers to the combination of ovary, style and stigma. Sexual Variants in Cannabis Cannabis has been studied for many years because of its unusual sexuality.
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