Create File Arch Sex Behav. Overall, women showed a small, nonsignificant difference. The contrast of nonpreferred erotic stimuli vs. Our results suggest that fMRI is a promising technique for measuring sexual arousal patterns, even at the level of individual men. PPG was assessed circumferentially, and 22 bisexual men responded sufficiently to meet our criteria for adequate measurement of their sexual arousal pattern, as did 21 heterosexual men and 25 homosexual men. Neither genital nor subjective arousal pattern differed between the two groups.
In contrast, sexual arousal is undoubtedly complexly determined, the sum of excitatory inputs e. This shows that vaginal photoplethysmography is not to blame in our failure to find category specific genital arousal in natal women. The exception was a man who reported that he was heterosexual. Again, the key stimuli are the same-sex couples. Our study did show a clear dissociation between genital arousal patterns and self-reports using the Kinsey scale. In the lab, the men watched sexually explicit videos of male couples, female couples, and heterosexual couples, as well as neutral stimuli i. Perhaps it cannot detect a category specific sexual arousal pattern even if one exists. Furthermore, sexual orientation is generally considered to reflect sexual feelings rather than other factors, such as social constraints. As I conceive of it, male sexual arousal is an imperfectly measured latent variable, and erectile measures are good, albeit imperfect, objective indicators of it. And presumably all such men have some kind of sexual orientation. Sexual arousal patterns have the advantage of being objectively measurable, but it is not objective measurement that privileges sexual arousal pattern as the meaning of sexual orientation. The flip side to this position is that most women may have nothing like a sexual orientation, if sexual orientation is conceived of as a well-designed sexual mechanism that strongly motivates women to select sexual partners of one sex or the other or both. Both of these drastically reduce the level of testosterone, which is necessary for male sexual arousal. For example, he may strongly prefer female partners due to religious beliefs that homosexuality is morally wrong and hence have a heterosexual preference. Indeed, sexual feelings need not be the primary determinant of any of them. This approach has at least two problems, however. Specifically, they reported far greater arousal to their preferred sex than to their nonpreferred sex with arousal to the mixed-sex videos intermediate. The primary method of measuring female sexual arousal exploits this color change. Predominant sexual arousal for women is the most common male sexual arousal pattern, and it is evolutionarily adaptive. The analogous result for men would be for homosexual and heterosexual men to have similar arousal patterns to sexually explicit videos of heterosexual couples and homosexual male couples. A second methodological concern we have addressed involves the limitations of vaginal photoplethysmography. Spitzer concluded that indeed, many men and women were capable of genuine changes in their sexual orientation. Like men, they have more genital arousal watching videos of couples interacting sexually compared with videos of nude exercising or masturbating individuals Chivers et al. In men who are awake, penile erection is usually accompanied by sexual arousal; indeed, penile erection usually requires such arousal. Vaginal photoplethysmography is a less direct measure, and its construct validity is much less well established. Thus, most bisexual men in our study had a homosexual arousal pattern, but a few had a heterosexual pattern.
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